Text Analysis: Example 2
Example of a Completed Written
Mandy Fleming - October, 2005
Theme: La ecología
Text Title: En el hotel, como en casa, algunas medidas sencillas
para proteger el medio ambiente
Grade Level: University, 3rd semester
Language Proficiency Level:
Key related concepts
Natural resources, pollution, conservation
- The greenhouse effect is one result of pollution. It results
in heat being trapped below the Earth’s layers of gases & the
surface temperature increasing which creates an ecological
and climatic imbalance.
- We consume large amounts of energy
whose renewal rate is 100,000 times slower than the rate
at which we use them. Petroleum
will be used up by 2040 and natural gas by 2060 if we continue
this rate of use.
- The production of electricity generates
pollutants in our environment.
- Water is precious and rare and
within 50 years, 2,500,000,000 people will be faced with a
shortage of water.
- Both natural gas and fuel come from petroleum.
Their use creates residual contaminants.
Essential Understandings or “Big” Ideas
Our individual and collective actions affect our future and the
future of our planet.
Unfamiliar cultural assumptions
Products (unfamiliar or familiar but
used in a new way)
Filters on dryers and central control units of heating/cooling
“limpiavasos” – separate machine for washing glasses in restaurants
furnace, pilot light, insulation of piping/wiring
Practices (unfamiliar or familiar but used
in a new way)
These practices may be unfamiliar to some in the class based upon
their home life and prior experiences:
Only lighting pilot light of a water heater
when water is needed
Watering plants/gardens by hand (as in
the photo in the text)
Those who use appliances are responsible for their upkeep and maintenance.
Use only what is “needed.”
We should want to protect our natural resources.
Everyone cooks and cleans.
Purpose (e.g., present information, teach
a moral, entertain, etc.)
Discussion and Instruction/Procedures:
The principle purpose of
this text is to describe how to protect the environment; however,
does also have a component of
convincing and informing throughout that might lead it to
a discussion structure. While the text structure and discourse
features support this, many of the linguistic features related
to the discussion genre are overshadowed by those related
to the genre of instruction/procedure.
Text Structure (e.g., introduce setting/character,
events, problem/resolution, etc.)
Thesis / Personal Statement of of Position: To live
better, improving our hotel
putting in danger our planet is our goal.
Supporting Arguments and Evidence:
Natural resources are being used up; our energy consumption is
The Earth is heating up because of air pollution.
The Earth is a fragile energy source.
Electricity production is generating pollutants.
Water is necessary for daily life and within 50 years, thousands
of millions of people will
be without it.
Fuel and gas use creates pollutants.
Refuting Counter-Arguments and Evidence: not included
Re-iteration of Point of View / Conclusion: “Our
planet is unique. Our planet is precious. We
should all do what is in our hand to protect it.”
Heading/Title: Some simple steps to protect
End Goal: To improve the future (for us and the
List of Materials/Ingredients: N/A
Steps in Sequence: Turn out
lights; Don’t leave televisions & computers
in “power save;” adapt heating to your needs; defrost refrigerators,
minibars & freezers; Turn off or reduce the power of kitchen appliances
when not in use; adjust thermostats to needs (i.e. empty rooms); fill completely
control & clean dryer filters; regulate and check the filters of central
heating/cooling units; repair leaks; don’t allow water to run unnecessarily
(grooming, hygiene, cleaning); shower instead of bathing; water plants in the
morning or at night; use a bucket & mop to clean the kitchen; fill dishwashers & glasswashers;
fill washing machines & respect the rinse cycle; adjust water filters,
washing machines, ice makers, etc.; clean burners on gas ranges; cover pots;
once a year; clean regularly kitchen appliances & parts; maintain furnaces,
kitchen appliances & laundry machines; control and repair insulation of
furnaces, water pipes, air circulation systems.
Additional Suggestions: Do
at work & in the hotel as you do at home; Working
together makes a difference
Visual Aids: Each step includes a drawing of a character
carrying out the action.
Linguistic Features related to Genre [connectives,
(e.g., adverbs of time, conjunctions), verb type (action vs. saying
verbs), verb tense, use of dialogue, etc.]
Certainty: should (debemos),
Less certainty: can (pueden)
- Nominalization: not present
- Connectives and Conjunctions:
Showing cause/effect: so that (para
Adding information: now (ahora
thus/then (pues), also
- Action Verbs as Imperatives: protect
(protejamos); imagine (imaginen); forget (olvide);
leave (deje); adapt (adapte); defrost
(descongele); turnoff (apague);
reduce (reduzca); adjust (ajuste); make (haga); verify
(repare); avoid (evite); water (riegue);
use (utilice); fill
(llene); intervene (intervenga);
put (coloque); proceed (proceda); clean (limpie)
- Range of Adverbials:
Time: when (cuando), regularly (regularmente);
once a year (una vez al
Manner: together (todos juntos); to full
capacity (a plena
Place: in the hotel (en el hotel); at work (en su puesto de trabajo)
Reason: for the purpose of (con el fin de); given that
que); in order
Learning Strategies and Possible Instructional Activities
Students will activate prior knowledge by brainstorming daily activities
that use natural resources. Then they will group/classify these
daily activities according to the natural resources that they use.
This will serve to provide students with some of the vocabulary
(both verbs and nouns) necessary to understand the text. Students
will then summarize how each natural resource affects his/her life
and the life of others. Additionally this activity serves to make
connections between previous and future learning experiences.
In order to comprehend the text, students will recognize and use cognates,
make inferences from context and drawings, as well use background knowledge.
They will also take notes on the commands used to promote the conservation
of electricity, water, and fuel/gas.
While carrying out the above, students will also manage their own learning and monitor
the task to ensure comprehension. They may also use selective attention to focus on the important phrases and ideas while cooperating in groups.
Students will cooperate with other students from other groups to
share their commands and together they will summarize the most
important (repeated) activities for protecting the environment
according to the text. They will find/apply patterns about
the formation of commands in order to diminish the consumption
Each student will then personalize the information learned by stating
what steps they will take to improve the environment. A week later,
students will evaluate their application of steps in their everyday
life by reflecting upon what they have or have not done.
Vocabulary (Words, Phrases, Idioms)
Essential vocabulary for learning the content
Vocabulary related to environment: el medio ambiente;
los recursos naturals; los contaminantes; la polución;
Waste and conservation vocabulary: proteger; unas medidas sencillas; conservar;
consumir; apagar; mejorar; agotar
Hotel / home vocabulary: un puesto de trabajo; calentar; la habitación;
el servicio de planta; la lavandería; los servicios técnicos; cotidiana
Select vocabulary to review or preview (material
or activity related) (CC)
Natural resources: el petróleo, el gas, el carbón,
Impersonal expressions: es bueno; es fácil; es increíble;
es crucial; es malo; es preciso
Indirect object pronouns: me, te, le, nos, os, les
Grammatical Structures and Communicative Functions
Essential language structures and functions
for learning the content (CO)
Imperatives (formal, singular) in order to give and respond
to directions: olvide, deje, adapte, descongele, apague, reduzca,
ajuste, haga, verifique, repare, evite, riegue, utilice, llene,
intervenga, coloque, proceda, limpie
Passive voice: se dice, se
transforman, se añaden, se crean, se agotan,
se estima, se verán
Adverbial phrases in order to describe the purpose of an activity and
it occurs: todos los días, para calentarnos, para encender, diariamente,
regularmente, una vez al año
Adjectival phrases: de espera,
de hielo, de climatización,
de agua, de
dientes, de cocina
Complex sentences with embedded sentences: Vivir
mejor mejorando nuestros servicios hoteleros sin poner en peligro
planeta, este es nuestro lema.
días, para calentarnos o climatizar, alumbrarnos, producir bienes de consumo,
desplazarnos o conservar los alimentos en frío, emitimos poluciones
y consumimos energies naturals cuyas reserves planetarias no son inagotables.
Select language structures and functions to
review or preview (material or activity related) (CC)
Direct and indirect object pronouns to show who/what actions
affect: calentarnos, alumbrarnos, desplazarnos, nos conciernen,
nos corresponde, convertirnos
Synthetic future tense in order to commit oneself to take action: consumiré,
usaré, bajaré, reciclaré, mantendré, apagaré,
conservaré, protejeré, utilizaré, etc.
Use of articles: el mañana vs. la mañana